Antique oriental rugs often display a characteristic that one never finds on rugs made after the invention of synthetic dyes. Antique oriental rugs frequently have abrash. Abrash is the name given to the hue or color change that can be observed when viewing older rugs from multiple angles. Abrash results from either inconsistent dyeing or the introduction of new wool before a given rug has been completed.
Scholars who study antique oriental rugs have long puzzled over how the ancient rug makers gave haldanes their products such deep, rich colors. Recently, two such scholars, Jack Haldane and Nest Rubio, have attempted to replicate the ancient dyeing process they envisage it. These studies have focused on the ability of yarn to absorb the red color from the natural madder root.
Haldane and Rubio reasoned that the makers of antique oriental rugs did not want to waste valuable fuel to heat the water that was used to dye the wool for the rugs. They reasoned that the absorption or the madder dyes must have taken place over an extended period of time, and at temperatures about equal to those used for making yogurt. The reasoning of Haldane and Rubio showed an excellent understanding of the mind-set of the ancient rug makers. They did not do things in a hurry.
The information gleaned from those studies underlines the simplicity of the process used to dye the wool for the antique oriental rugs. The wool would probably soak for up to 30 days in a mixture that resembled a water solution with 25% Alum. Then it would soak for 3 to 7 days in a mixture that was one part water and one part madder root. What resulted from all that soaking were antique oriental rugs with lovely pinks, vivid reds and striking deep Burgundies.
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Part Two continued…
The Christian’s duty of paying taxes even extends to “de facto” rulers. If Hodge is correct, then the jurisdictional argument stands in direct conflict with Scripture at this point. Renowned commentator, John Murray, adds his substantial theological influence to the question concerning whom “the powers that be” refer to:
The powers that be refer to the de facto magistrates.13
Christians especially should think twice before dismissing the insights of these exegetes whose reputations are well known and beyond dispute. If we are to pay taxes to de facto magistrates, how much more should we be careful to pay taxes to those representatives properly elected? “De facto” rulers may even be those rulers who emerge after a revolution. As will be shown, there has been a radical revolution from within in this country. In truth, failure to pay taxes is rebellion towards God which will result in His judgment (Romans 13:2). It also needs to be noted that the passages in Romans 13:1,2,5 control the proper interpretation and the recipients of taxes in Romans 13:7. There is not a hint anywhere in the writings of the apostle Paul, that believers were to resist Roman taxation.